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Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, Saxitoxins and Organisms

New additions are indicated by an asterisk (*). Last update: 10 April 2014 (correction of links, only).

Kindly send suggestions of HAB links you would like us to add, corrections for broken links, or corrections to the text that describes the link, to Karin Rengefors (ISSHA's Secretary).


Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: Harmful Algae Website; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) food safety facts

Red Tide, PSP and Safe Shellfish Harvesting: Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) fact sheet

PSP Biotoxins in British Columbia: Fisheries & Oceans Canada

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: NOAA, Northwest Science Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA, USA

PSP in Washington State: Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department; pdf file

Gathering Safe Shellfish in Washington - Avoiding Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: by L. Nishitani, K.K. Chew, and T.L. King; Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department; pdf file (136 KB)

PSP in Shellfish: Washington State Department of Health

PSP toxins in shellfish: Washington State University

PSP Monitoring in Massachusetts: Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: University of Miami NIEHS Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center, USA

Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: By J.R. Deeds, J.H. Landsberg, S.M. Etheridge, G.C. Pitcher, and S.W. Longan (2008); Mar. Drugs 6: 308-348; Open Access PDF file (984 KB)

Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review: by D.-Z. Wang (2008) Mar. Drugs 6: 349-371; Open Access PDF file (521 KB); discusses PSP

Characterization of Intracellular and Extracellular Saxitoxin Levels in Both Field and Cultured Alexandrium spp. Samples from Sequim Bay, Washington: By K.A. Lefebvre, B.D. Bill, A. Erickson, K.A. Baugh, L. O’Rourke, P.R. Costa, S. Nance, and V.L. Trainer (2008) Mar. Drugs. 6: 103-116; Open Access PDF file (1,088 KB)

Paralytic shellfish poisoning: Seafood safety and human health perspectives: By S.M. Etheridge (2010). Abstract in Toxicon

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: Collection of mostly medical information (symptoms, diagnosis, treatment), from

Alexandrium spp. PCR Detection Kit: DIATHEVA, Fano, Italy

Proliferation of dinoflagellates along the Catalan Coast (Spain): PhD thesis (1998) of Esther Garcés (in Spanish)

Alexandrium tamarense / catenella: IFREMER (in French)

Saxitoxin: Molecule of the Month, University of Sussex at Brighton, UK

Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates: (2002) Smithsonian Institution Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume 42:1-144 by Maria A. Faust and Rose A. The guide is a taxonomic resource, lab manual and the most comprehensive reference source for identifying 48 HAB dinoflagellate species. Contact Maria Faust about receiving a copy.

EFSA advice on the Saxitoxin Group: European Food Safety Authority. PDF files of the Summary and of the Opinion

Receptor Binding Assay Technique for Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins Quantification: PDF file of Reference Manual for saxitoxin assay; E.Z. Sombrito (ed.), Regional Resource Unit,, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Quezon City, Philippines (2000); contains paper by F.M. Van Dolah: Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence

Description of PSP Toxins: FAO Food and Nutrition Papers

PSP Toxin Certified Reference Materials: National Research Council of Canada, Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) program, Halifax, NS, Canada. Available standards: CRM-C1&2, CRM-dcGTX2&3-b, CRM-dcNEO-b, CRM-dcSTX, CRM-GTX1&4-c, CRM-GTX2&3-c, CRM-GTX5-b, CRM-NEO-c, CRM-STX-e

Saxitoxin Reference Standard: US FDA; National Institue of Standards and Technology, Standards and Reference Materials

Rapid screening test for PSP: Jellett Rapid Testing Ltd. (Chester Bassin, Nova Scotia, Canada)

Saxitoxins ELISA Test Kit: Sold by Abraxis (Warminster, PA, USA)

Saxitoxin (PSP) ELISA Test Kit: Sold by Anacon Biotech (Guangzhou, China)

RIDASCREEN®FAST PSP SC: Sold by R-Biopharm AG (Darmstadt, Germany)

* MaxSignal® Saxitoxin (PSP) ELISA Test Kit is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of Saxitoxin in mussels and water samples. Bioo Scientific Corp. (Austin, TX, USA)


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PhD Course June 2014


International PhD course on Harmful algae, toxins and fish kills, June 11 - 17, 2014, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Apply by April 25th.

ICHA 15 Proceedings on-line


The first papers of the ICHA 15 Proceedings are now available on-line. Check them out here.

ICHA 14 Proceedings on-line


The 14th International Conference on Harmful Algae was held in Hersonissos, Crete, 1-5 November 2010. Proceedings of submitted manuscripts, edited by Drs K. Pagou and G. Hallegraeff, are finally published and for the first time in digital form through the ISSHA and IOC UNESCO website. The objective of ISSHA is to publish future proceedings in a quicker and freely available way for the HAB community. Link to Proceedings here.

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